Not everyone understands “off the record” or “on background” to mean the same things. Before any interview in which any degree of anonymity is expected, there should be a discussion in which the ground rules are set explicitly.
These are the AP’s definitions:
On the record: The information can be used with no caveats, quoting the source by name.
Off the record: The information cannot be used for publication.
Background: The information can be published but only under conditions negotiated with the source. Generally, the sources do not want their names published but will agree to a description of their position. AP reporters should object vigorously when a source wants to brief a group of reporters on background and try to persuade the source to put the briefing on the record. These background briefings have become routine in many venues, especially with government officials.
Deep background: The information can be used but without attribution. The source does not want to be identified in any way, even on condition of anonymity.
In general, information obtained under any of these circumstances can be pursued with other sources to be placed on the record.
The key is the first paragraph: “Not everyone understands “off the record” or “on background” to mean the same things. Before any interview in which any degree of anonymity is expected, there should be a discussion in which the ground rules are set explicitly.”
There is a lot of good guidelines here – both ethical and common sense – but my take away is don’t leave anything to chance. If the old reporter’s adage about ”If your mother says she loves you, check it out” is true, why wouldn’t you have that conversation and make sure you and a source are on the same page?